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November 2015 is second-warmest in known history, NASA says, as this year stays on track for record warmth

December 19, 2016 Leave a comment

November 2016 was the second-warmest November in recorded history, NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies announced last week, with an average global temperature that was less than one-tenth of a degree Celsius lower than the record-setter of 2015.

Last month was also 0.95 degrees Celsius (1.71 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than the average November during the years between 1951-1980 and kept Earth on the path to the warmest year the planet has experienced in the 136 years in which consistent weather records have been maintained.

November 2015 was 1.02 degrees Celsius warmer than the mean for the month during that 29-year period.

gistemp-anomaly-nov-2016-courtesy-nasa-giss-schmidt
This graphic shows that November 2016 (shortened line) experienced temperatures well above the norm for the past 136 years.
Graphic courtesy NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies; graphic by Gavin Schmidt.

The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration announced Monday that, according to its calculations, November 2016 was the fifth-warmest in recorded history. NOAA said that last month’s average global temperature was 0.72 degrees Celsius (1.31 degrees Fahrenheit) above the norm for the month.

NOAA’s assessment of the month’s place in climate history is based on 122 years of records.

As the year approaches its end, there is little doubt that it will be the warmest known in either 122 or 136 years. NOAA’s statement explained that this year’s average temperature to date is 0.94 degrees Celsius (1.69 degrees Fahrenheit) above the mean for the past 122 years, while NASA’s methods indicate that the year-to-date mean temperature is 1.02 degrees Celsius (1.84 degrees Fahrenheit) above that for the period 1951-1980.

departures-from-average-nov-2016-percentile
The mean air temperature over Earth’s land and sea surfaces was highest over portions of North America and eastern Asia during November, while central Asia experienced a month that was cooler than usual.
Graphic courtesy NOAA, National Centers for Environmental Information.

Earth’s Arctic region has been the part of the planet where warmth has been most pronounced this year.

NOAA’s 2016 Artic Report Card, which the agency released earlier this month, indicated that the extent of summer sea ice in the region this year was tied with 2007 for the second-lowest since 1979 and that average surface air temperatures there in the year that ended on Sept. 30 were the highest since at least 1900.

The mean air temperature in the Arctic has warmed by 3.5 degrees Celsius (6.3 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1900, a pace that is twice as fast as that experienced by the rest of Earth.

arctic-air-temperatures-oct-2015-sept-2016-courtesy-noaa
The Arctic experienced record warmth between Oct. 2015-Sept. 2016.
Graphic courtesy NOAA.

The continental United States experienced warmer temperatures than normal for the first 11 months of this year from coast-to-coast and from northern border to southern border. This graphic, prepared by the National Centers for Environmental Information, shows that no region in the mainland U.S. experienced an average temperature that is lower than the mean of the past 122 years:

mean-temperature-percentiles-u-s-graphic-courtesy-noaa-national-centers-for-environmental-information
This map shows the deviations from mean temperature across the continental United States during November 2016.
Graphic courtesy NOAA, National Centers for Environmental Information.

U.S. agencies: July is hottest month in recorded history

August 26, 2016 Leave a comment
Land and Sea Surface Anomalies, July 2016

This graphic shows blended air and sea surface temperature anomalies around the world for July 2016. Temperature data is shown in degrees Celsius. Graphic courtesy NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information.

The records kept falling as July 2016 set new benchmarks for heat.

NASA said Aug. 16 that last month was not only the hottest July in recorded history, but also the hottest month known since temperature record-keeping began in 1880.

“It wasn’t by the widest of margins, but July 2016 was the warmest month since modern record keeping began in 1880,” Dr. Gavin Schmidt, director of the agency’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said. “It appears almost a certainty that 2016 also will be the warmest year on record.”

This July’s mean temperature was 0.1 degrees warmer than the previous July record holders that occurred in 2015, 2011, and 2009, according to NASA’s study.

The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration confirmed July’s status as the heat pacesetter for all months on Aug. 17.

NOAA said that July 2016 was 1.57 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the average 20th century July and 0.11 degrees Fahrenheit above the previous record-holding month of July 2015.

That continued a decades-long trend for the month of the year that is the peak of summer in the northern hemisphere.

“July 2016 marks the 40th consecutive July with temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average,” NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information said in a summary of the July temperature data. “July 1976 was the last time July global land and ocean temperatures were below average.”

The trend is not limited to every year’s July.

A new record for the warmest month of its kind has been set in each of the past ten months, according to NASA, dating back to October 2015.

NOAA pegged the hot streak at 15 record-setting months in a row.

The disparity is the result of differing methodologies used by the two agencies.

For the year of 2016 through the end of July, NOAA found that mean worldwide temperatures were 1.85 degrees Fahrenheit above the 20th century average.

The next-hottest January-July period came in 2014, when the average was 0.34 degrees F below this year’s measurement.

Both agencies use meteorological stations around the world to obtain air temperature data and ship- and buoy-based instruments to measure sea surface temperature. Antarctic research stations are also used to gather the data that underlies their monthly global temperature analysis reports.

May is eighth straight warmest month, NASA says

June 15, 2016 Leave a comment
May 2016 temperatures

This map indicates the extent to which temperatures on Earth deviated from the 1951-1980 average. Ocean data are not used over land nor within 100 kilometers of a reporting land station.The gray areas on the map indicate missing data. Map courtesy NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

May continued a streak of record setting hot months as average temperatures were nearly a whole degree Celsius above the previously hottest May.

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies said Tuesday that the mean global temperature during the year’s fifth month was 0.93 degrees Celsius, or 1.67 degrees Fahrenheit, than the average for May.

That made May 2016 the eighth consecutive month, according to NASA records, to break the record for warmth.

The previous record-holding May occurred in 2014.

Japan’s meteorological agency reached a slightly different conclusion, concluding that May 2016 was the second-warmest May on record.

Another U.S. federal agency, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, has yet to release its measurement of average May temperatures. NOAA uses the same data as NASA but analyzes measured temperatures differently.

NASA’s method depends on a dataset called the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis. GISTEMP includes records from 6,300 meteorological stations scattered around the planet, ship-based and satellite observations of sea surface temperatures, and research stations in Antarctica. The GISTEMP data goes back to 1880.

Although May was another record-setting month, in terms of heat, it was not as anomalous as the seven prior months. Between October 2015 and April 2016 the monthly average temperature exceeded the previous record-holding month by at least one degree Celsius.

The explanation for the lessened disparity in heat between May 2016 and previous Mays in the temperature record might be related to the approaching end of a powerful El Nino event.

Nevertheless, at least according to one climate scientist, May’s record-setting mean temperature means that the rolling 12-month average has now exceeded one degree Celsius above the norm for the period 1951-1980.

 

January was hottest on record, 9th month in a row to set warmth record

February 21, 2016 Leave a comment

January continued a streak of hotter-than-average months, according to the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, going into the record books as the hottest January since climate records have been kept and continuing a recent streak of consecutive warmest monthly temperature benchmarks.

According to the National Centers of Environmental Information, a bureau of NOAA, the worldwide average atmosphere and ocean surface temperature was 1.04 degrees Celsius above the 2oth century average. That is the second-highest deviation from the global norm ever recorded in 137 years of record-keeping, trailing only December 2015.

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies released data last week indicating that January represented the greatest departure from the global average atmosphere and ocean surface temperature, with the worldwide measurement reaching 1.13 degrees above the global average of the last century.

Jan. 2016 temperatures
This graphic shows worldwide air and sea surface temperatures in January 2016. Courtesy NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

The record-breaking warmth was especially pronounced in the Arctic, where temperatures above 75 degrees north latitude were 7 degrees Celsius above average and temperatures. That would explain the report released last week by the National Snow & Ice Data Center, which indicated that January’s Arctic ice pack is lower than it has been in any January in recorded history. The NSIDC data shows that January’s Arctic ice pack was more than a million square kilometers less than the 1981-2010 average.

January 2016 Arctic ice cover
This graphic shows the Arctic ice cover in January 2016 – 13.53 million square kilometers. The magenta-colored line shows the median January ice cover between 1981-2010; the black cross marks the geographic North Pole. Graphic courtesy National Snow & Ice Data Center.

The NOAA report indicated that Sub-Saharan Africa, most of South America, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia also experienced significant warmth last month. Some areas experienced anomalous rainfall, particularly the United Kingdom, Ireland, some parts of western Europe, New Zealand, parts of Brazil and southern South America, and parts of China. Others were abnormally dry. Those areas included parts of Mexico and northern South America, some areas in Australia, portions of Asia, and a small part of northwestern Africa.

January was also the ninth consecutive month in which the record for highest average monthly air and sea surface temperature has been broken, according to NOAA.

1976 was the last year in which Earth experienced a January that was colder than average.

 

 

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