Posts Tagged ‘earth science’

May is eighth straight warmest month, NASA says

June 15, 2016 Leave a comment
May 2016 temperatures

This map indicates the extent to which temperatures on Earth deviated from the 1951-1980 average. Ocean data are not used over land nor within 100 kilometers of a reporting land station.The gray areas on the map indicate missing data. Map courtesy NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

May continued a streak of record setting hot months as average temperatures were nearly a whole degree Celsius above the previously hottest May.

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies said Tuesday that the mean global temperature during the year’s fifth month was 0.93 degrees Celsius, or 1.67 degrees Fahrenheit, than the average for May.

That made May 2016 the eighth consecutive month, according to NASA records, to break the record for warmth.

The previous record-holding May occurred in 2014.

Japan’s meteorological agency reached a slightly different conclusion, concluding that May 2016 was the second-warmest May on record.

Another U.S. federal agency, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, has yet to release its measurement of average May temperatures. NOAA uses the same data as NASA but analyzes measured temperatures differently.

NASA’s method depends on a dataset called the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis. GISTEMP includes records from 6,300 meteorological stations scattered around the planet, ship-based and satellite observations of sea surface temperatures, and research stations in Antarctica. The GISTEMP data goes back to 1880.

Although May was another record-setting month, in terms of heat, it was not as anomalous as the seven prior months. Between October 2015 and April 2016 the monthly average temperature exceeded the previous record-holding month by at least one degree Celsius.

The explanation for the lessened disparity in heat between May 2016 and previous Mays in the temperature record might be related to the approaching end of a powerful El Nino event.

Nevertheless, at least according to one climate scientist, May’s record-setting mean temperature means that the rolling 12-month average has now exceeded one degree Celsius above the norm for the period 1951-1980.


NASA Image of the Day: Turbulent ocean

April 5, 2016 Leave a comment

NASA’s Image of the Day for April 5, 2016 shows the waters of the north Atlantic Ocean:

Atlantic Ocean, April 5, 2016

The Gulf Stream waters flow in somewhat parallel layers, slicing across what is otherwise a fairly turbulent western North Atlantic Ocean in this March 9, 2016 image collected by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite. The turbulence is made visible by the pigmented phytoplankton it entrains. Photo courtesy NASA.

Winter sea ice in the Arctic hits record low

March 31, 2016 Leave a comment
NASA visualization, winter 2016 - courtesy NASA Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio, C. Starr

This graphic shows ice cover in the Arctic during the most recent winter season. Courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio, graphic by C. Starr.

Earth’s north polar ice cap was smaller this past winter than at any time since measurements began to be obtained by satellite, breaking a record set only last year.

NASA and the National Snow and Ice Data Center announced March 28 that the maximum extent of ice during the season was reached on March 24 and that it covered 14.52 million square kilometers.

That beat last year’s mark of 14.54 million square kilometers and continued a stretch in which the 13 most ice-free winters in the Arctic have occurred in the past 13 years.

“It is likely that we’re going to keep seeing smaller wintertime maximums in the future because in addition to a warmer atmosphere, the ocean has also warmed up. That warmer ocean will not let the ice edge expand as far south as it used to,” Walt Meier, a  sea ice scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said. “Although the maximum reach of the sea ice can vary a lot each year depending on winter weather conditions, we’re seeing a significant downward trend, and that’s ultimately related to the warming atmosphere and oceans.”

During the most recent winter season the Arctic experienced record high temperatures in December, January, and February. Air temperatures were as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit higher than average at the edge of the ice pack, Meier said.

Warm air from the south was brought by winds to the Arctic, which also would have contributed to a lessened sea ice cover.

Less winter sea ice causes the air temperature over the Arctic ocean to increase because the unfrozen ocean waters are warmer than the overlaying air mass. As the ocean water evaporates, more water vapor accumulates in the atmosphere and that, in turn, causes clouds to form. Increased cloudiness causes an increase in surface warmth.

Satellite measurements of Arctic winter ice extent began in 1979.

Since that time the Arctic has lost nearly 1,606 square kilometers of winter sea ice. That is an area twice the size of Texas.


2015 saw record increase in atmospheric CO2 levels, NOAA says

March 10, 2016 Leave a comment
Mauna Loa observatory - courtesy NOAA, photo by Forrest Mims III

NOAA’s Mauna Loa Observatory has been gathering climate data since the 1950s. Photo courtesy NOAA, photo by Forrest Mims III.

Worldwide emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide increased by an unprecedented amount last year, according to the federal agency that monitors Earth’s climate.

The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration said Wednesday that the atmospheric concentration of CO2 reached 402.59 parts per million in February 2016. That was a jump of 3.05 parts per million, the largest in a 56 year-long history of record-keeping.

Confirmation of the data was provided by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California at San Diego. However, researchers with that institution’s Scripps CO2 Group said that atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide reached 404.16 parts per million last month.

The annual increase was greater than two parts per million for the fourth straight year.

“Carbon dioxide levels are increasing faster than they have in hundreds of thousands of years,” Pieter Tans, a scientist at NOAA’s Global Greenhouse Reference Network, said. “It’s explosive compared to natural processes.”

Keeling Curve - courtesy Scripps Institution of Oceanography

The Keeling curve shows the level of carbon dioxide, relative to other gases, in the atmosphere. Graphic courtesy Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

It has been about more than ten thousand years since Earth last experienced such a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Between 17,000 and 11,000 years ago the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere rose by 80 parts per million.

It is now rising at a pace 200 times faster than that, Tans said.

carbon dioxide levels at Mauna Loa, 2012-

This graph shows the past four complete years and the current year of measurement, taken at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The dashed red line with diamond symbols represents the monthly mean values, centered on the middle of each month. The black line with the square symbols represents the same, after correction for the average seasonal cycle. Graphic courtesy NOAA.

NOAA said in a statement that the current El Niño event is contributing to the CO2 increase, but that fossil fuel combustion remains the overwhelming driver of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere.




People in Singapore see total solar eclipse

March 9, 2016 Leave a comment

Earth experienced its first total solar eclipse since March 20, 2015 on Tuesday, with Indonesia being the locale on the planet where the spectacle could be seen.

The eclipse began at 8:38 pm EST and lasted for four minutes. It was visible to people in about half of Indonesia’s provinces. A report in the New York Times said that the town of Ternate, located in the Maluku Islands, was the “prime viewing location.”

A partial solar eclipse could be observed elsewhere in the south Pacific region, including in Hawaii.

Solar eclipses occur when the Moon passes between Earth and its star, temporarily blocking some or most of the sun’s light from reaching Earth. The event happens only about once per year because the plane of Moon’s orbit does not exactly match Earth’s orbit around the sun.

The Moon seems to block the sun because, while the sun is about 400 times larger than the Moon, it is also about 400 times farther away.

This image shows Tuesday’s eclipse in progress from South Tangerang, Indonesia:


Photo copyright Ridwan Arifiandi; Creative Commons license CC BY-NC 2.0

The March 2015 eclipse was visible in areas in the region of the North Atlantic Ocean, including the Faroe Islands and Norway’s Svalbard archipelago.

Volcano erupts in Ecuador, Singapore volcano erupts twice in one day

March 3, 2016 Leave a comment

Ecuador’s Tungurahua volcano began to erupt last Friday, Feb. 26, sending ash and smoke into the atmosphere in a series of explosions. This BBC video shows some of the action:

Tungurahua is a stratovolcano – a stratified, conical volcano that is both aesthetically pleasing and very dangerous. Stratovolcanoes, also called composite volcanoes, tend to be concentrated in areas where a plate of Earth’s crust subducts below another.

schematic of stratovolcano

This schematic diagram shows the internal structure of a typical stratovolcano. Image courtesy U.S. Geological Survey.

Tungurahua is part of a chain of volcanoes that populates the Andes mountains. The Andean Volcanic Belt is a consequence of the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates below the South American plate.

The mountain, whose name may mean “throat of fire,” is one of 28 active volcanoes in Ecuador.

All of that South American country’s volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire. That belt of volcanoes largely encircles the Pacific Ocean and includes 452 volcanoes, about 75 percent of the world’s total.

The mountain has a peak more than 16,000 feet above sea level.

Tungurahua has now erupted three times since 2010. Those eruptions are part of a cycle that began in 1999. Prior episodes of eruptive activity occurred in 1773, 1886, and 1916-1918.

More than 20,000 people live within ten kilometers of Tungurahua. Ecuador’s capital city, Quito, is about 140 kilometers north of the volcano. Tungurahua is located within Sangay National Park.

Tungurahua eruption at night, July 2015 - photo courtesy E.P.N. Geophysics Institute

Tungurahua is shown erupting at night during July 2015. Photo courtesy National Polytechnic School, Geophysics Department.

Meanwhile, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung erupted twice last Friday, Feb. 26. That volcano sent ash to a reported 14,000 feet in the atmosphere. This BBC video shows footage:

Mount Sinabung is also a stratovolcano and is located on the island of North Sumatra. Before eruptions in 2010, 2013, and 2014, the volcano was last active in the 1600s. There are four craters on the mountain. Mount Sinabung’s peak sits at an elevation of about 8,069 feet.

More than 13,000 people live within 10 kilometers of Sinabung, according to the Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program website.



NASA video dramatically exhibits this winter’s storms on U.S. east coast

April 5, 2014 Leave a comment

On March 27 NASA released a video containing time-lapse photography of this winter’s storm events on the American east coast.

The imagery was obtained by the agency’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites between January 1 and March 24.

For more information about how the video was created, visit this NASA web page.

NASA photo shows collapse of iceberg

December 31, 2011 Leave a comment

Check out this photo showing the collapse of an iceberg in the Southern Ocean earlier this month. The iceberg broke off from a larger ice floe about twelve years ago.

Called B-15J, the iceberg was a remnant of the much larger iceberg B-15, which broke off from Antarctica’s Ross ice sheet in 2000. Before breaking into smaller pieces B-15 was about 170 miles long and about 25 miles long.

Icebergs result from the calving of ice shelves, which are the edges of glaciers. When the ice shelves break up, a phenomenon that can happen with greater frequency as Earth’s atmosphere warms, the glacier itself is likely to begin to move faster.

When they do, more ice enters the oceans, which can cause increases in sea levels.

Icebergs melt as they move into warmer waters farther away from the poles.

Photo courtesy NASA. Hat tip to the folks at Our Amazing Planet for the heads up!

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