Home > astronomy > Astronomers discover moon orbiting dwarf planet Makemake

Astronomers discover moon orbiting dwarf planet Makemake

makemake's moon

This image obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2015 shows a moon – the first discovered – in orbit around the dwarf planet Makemake. The tiny satellite, located just above Makemake in this image, is barely visible because it is almost lost in the glare of the very bright dwarf planet. Image courtesy NASA, European Space Agency, Southwest Research Institute.

Makemake, a dwarf planet far beyond Pluto in the Kuiper Belt, has a moon.

Imagery obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope detected the satellite last April, according to a recently published paper.

The moon, which has been temporarily catalogued as S/2015 (136472) 1 and nicknamed MK2, is about 100 miles in diameter. It was observed orbiting Makemake from a distance of about 13,000 miles.

MK2 probably orbits Makemake in an orientation that makes it difficult for astronomers to observe the moon.

“Our preliminary estimates show that the moon’s orbit seems to be edge-on, and that means that often when you look at the system you are going to miss the moon because it gets lost in the bright glare of Makemake,” Dr. Alex H. Parker, a planetary scientist at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo., said.

Parker led the team that analyzed the Hubble image of MK2.

One implication of the Makemakean moon’s discovery is an increased ability to measure Makemake’s mass and density.

To measure the dwarf planet’s mass, scientists will need to overcome the challenges inherent in observing MK2’s orbit. If they succeed in doing so, and because the distance from Earth to Makemake is already known, it would be possible to use the orbital period and the mean distance of MK2 from Makemake to determine Makemake’s mass.

To determine Makemake’s density, scientists must know its volume, which in turn requires knowledge of the dwarf planet’s diameter. Makemake’s diameter is about 1,500 kilometers.

Once the volume is determined, density can be calculated by dividing Makemake’s mass by its volume.

makemake-artist-view

Early artist’s impression of Makemake. Courtesy NASA.

Astronomers used a camera on the Hubble Space Telescope to find MK2. That instrument, called Widefield Camera 3, is able to capture images across the radiation spectrum.

Widefield Camera 3 has a 16 megapixel capacity and can capture an image as large as 160 arcseconds by 160 arcseconds in size.

Makemake is the second-brightest object, after Pluto, in the Kuiper Belt and is, like Pluto, covered with methane ice.

The dwarf planet, which was discovered in 2005, is named for a deity that is worshiped by native people of Easter Island.

In addition to Makemake, there are four other dwarf planets in the solar system: Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Ceres.

With the discovery of MK2, astronomers now know that all of the solar system’s dwarf planets have moons.

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